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Friday, 14 September 2018

Learning Theories

We have mainly two theories of learning namely the behaviourist learning theory and the cognitive learning theory.

Types of Learning Theory;

Classical Conditionings;;Psychologist have identified ways in which learning occurs. One way is called conditioned learning. Conditional learning occurs when one stimulus is paired with another stimulus,which already elicits a known response. After several trials,the new stimulus will begin to elicit the same response as the original stimulus to which was paired. Thus form of learning is also called Classical Conditioning was first observed by Pavolv. In his classical experiment ,Pavlov rang a bell (an unconditioned stimulus) every time he presented food (the original stimulus) to a dog. The response elicited by food (salivating) began to occur when the dog heard the bell ringing even though the food was not present. The dog had become condition to the ringing bell.

Instrumental Conditioning; This is another way in which learning occurs. Instrumental learning (also called operant learning) occurs when an organism is presented with a stimulus and is Rewarded for having made the "correct" or desired response. "Incorrect"response go unrewarded or are negatively reinforced,or punished. The theory is that responses properly reinforced will increase the probability that the organism will respond " correctly" the next time the stimulus is presented. Reinforcement strengthens the stimulus response relationship and in this way increase the changes that the desired response will be made again for the same stimulus.

The person most closely associated with instrumental conditioning is an American psychologist, B.F. skinner. Skinner says that most learning takes place in an effort to control the environment (that is,to obtain favorable outcome). Control is achieved by means of trial and error process during which one behavior of the individual or organism results in a more favourable response than other behaviour. The reward reinforces the behaviour associated with favourable response; that is, it is instrumental in teaching the individual a specific behaviour that gives him or her more control over the out come.

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