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Thursday, 13 September 2018

The Theory of Personality Measure

In the effort to understand consumer behaviour, marketers measure their personalities. The personality measures used to describe market or consumers depend on the personality theory the researcher feels his most relevant. Personality measures have been based on these theories below :
1. Trait theory.
2. Psychoanalytic theory.
3. Self- concept theory.
4. Self- concept theory.

Trait thoery.
Trait theory has been the most widely used for measuring personality because it is the most empirical that is based on survey of consumers. Trade theory states that personality is composed of a set of traits that describes general response tendencies predispositions. Trade is defined as any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another.
Trait theorists construct personality in stories or questionnaires which are given to consumers to fill. The consumers are asked to respond to many items in the inventory in which they agree or disagree with certain statements or express likes or dislike for certain situations or type of people. Umis response to these items are then factor analysed and a few personality dimensions are produced that represent some of the original questions. The researcher can then come up with a descriptive name for the group of consumers possessing the traits or traits being studied.
Application Of Trait Theory.

Several studies have used personality traits to segment markets. For instance, in a study of smoking behaviour, it was found that personality characteristics measured by edwards personal preference schedule showed the differences between heavy smokers, average smokers and nonsmokers. Heavy smokers possesses more of such trade as sexuality, aggression and achievement, and less of such traits as order and compliance. Also for heavy smokers, it was found that their trades reflect more of power and competitiveness and are more influenced by sexual themes and symbols. They are not as compulsive or submissive as the non smokers. Therefore based on the traits of heavy smokers, the company developed the Marlboro cowboy cigarettes commercial, which has been very effective is deleting purchase of product. We have to point out here that even though personality traits can be used to segment the market, since personality traits can be used to predict behaviour but in many cases however the association between personality traits and behaviour has been weak and therefore cannot be used to segment the market. The reason is because many things outside personality enters into the consumer buying decision process.

Psychoanalytic Theory : this theory was formulated by sigmund freud and later modified by his followers and critics this theory had a tremendous impact on the study of human behaviour. According to freud, there are three parts of personality, the eagle, the super eagle, the id. The id refers to the basic instinctive drives, many of which are anti-social. The super eagle is the is the conscience, accepting moral standard and directing the instinctive drives of the id into acceptable channels. The id and the superego are sometimes in conflict. The eagle is the conscious national control centre that maintains a balance between the uninhibited instinct of the id and the social oriented constraining superego.
Field explained that every person enters the word with certain instinctive biological drives that cannot be satisfied in a socially acceptable fashion. As the individual learns that he can not gratify or satisfy these needs in a direct manner he developed other more subtle means of seeking satisfaction. This other means required that the basic drives be represented and consequently, inattention and frustration develop. Also, feeling of guilt or shame about this drive cause the person to suppress them to the point where they become so conscious movies full stop in a place of drive satisfaction the individual substitutes rationalization, and, and socially acceptable behaviour. Yet the basic urges are always there. Enter felt analysis and explanation have become certain implications for consumer behaviour. 1 significant marketing implication is that a person's real motives for buying a product or shopping at a certain store may be hidden. Sometimes even when we are cells do not understand why we feel or act the way we do. Psychoanalytic theory has caused marketers to realised that they must appeal to buyers dreams, hopes, and fears. Yet at the same time they must provide buyers with socially acceptable rationalization for many purchases.

Application of psychoanalytic theory.

 motivational researchers have applied flows psychoanalytic theory to the study of consumer behaviour. According to motivational researchers, sometimes the consumers does not even know why he behaves the Way he does. So motivational researchers make efforts to discover the hidden or underlying motives or reasons for consumer behaviour. Motivational researchers applying freud's theory have found that unconscious or hidden motives could be determined only by indirect methods. Two techniques were derived from psychoanalytic theory and applied to marketing. These techniques are depth interviews and project techniques. Depth interviews are used to determine deep seated or repressed motives that could not the elicited in structured surveys. Consumers are encouraged to talk freely in an unstructured interview, and their responses are interpreted carefully to review motives and potential purchase inhibitions that is those hidden motives or reasons that prevent a person from buying or using a particular products.

 projective techniques are designed to determine motives that are difficult to express or identify. Instead of asking consumers direct questions they may not be able to answer, consumers are given a situation a cotton or a set of rocks and asked to respond.

 Consumers wooden project to a less involving situation, facilitating expression of feelings and concerns about products. In a famous experiment carried out by harry in later 1940s projective techniques was used to discover why women were reluctant to purchase instant coffee when it was first introduced. To achieve his objective, he constructed 2 shopping list that were identical, except that one included regular coffee, and the other instant coffee. Housewives were then as to project or describe the type of women most likely to have developed each shopping list. The housewife who developed instant coffee in the list was characterized or described as being lazy and a poor planner. These findings show that many women had a deep-seated fear for buying products like instant coffee or instant cake mixes out of a concern that their husband would feel they or described as being lazy and a poor planner. These findings show that many women had a deep-seated fear for buying products like instant coffee or instant cake mixes out of a concern that their husband would feel they or described as being lazy and a poor planner. These findings show that many women had a deep-seated fear for buying products like instant coffee or instant cake mixes out of a concern that their husband would feel they were or described as being lazy and a poor planner. These findings show that many women had a deep-seated fear for buying products like instant coffee or instant cake mixes out of a concern that their husband would feel they were Or described as being lazy and a poor planner. These findings show that many women had a deep-seated fear for buying products like instant coffee or instant cake mixes out of a concern that their husband would feel they were avoiding their traditional roles as home makers. Based on The result of the study, instant coffee was advertised in a family setting portraying the husband's approval. This led to the acceptance and purchases of the products by housewives.

 Social theory.

Several of frauds police did not agree with his contention that personality is basically instinctual frauds police did not agree with his contention that personality is basically instinctual and sexual in nature. Instead, this neo - Freudians  believe that social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality. For instance, harry stock sullivan stressed that people continuously attempts to establish significant and rewarding relationships with others he was particularly concerned with the individuals effort to reduce tension as anxiety. Karen Horney On her own part was interested in anxiety. Karen Proposed that individuals be classified into three personality groups, compliance, aggressive, and detached proposed that individuals be classified into three personality groups, compliance, aggressive, and detached proposed that individuals be classified into three personality groups, compliance, aggressive, and detached.

 compliance individuals are those who move towards others. The desire to be loved, wanted, and appreciated.
 aggressive individuals are those who moved against others full stop the desire to excel and win admiration.
Detached individuals are those who moved away from others. The desire independence, self-sufficiency, and freedom from obligations.



 silver researchers have applied classification system to the study of consumer behaviour. For example, one researcher developed a personality test based on honest theory and found some tentative relationship between colleagues college students response types of personality and their product and brand usage pattern. hey highly compliant students were found to prefer name-brand products, such as bayer aspirin, students classified as aggressive showed a preference for old spice, deodorant over other brands comma as a result of its masculine appeal common and highly detached students proved to be heavily tea drinkers possibly reflecting their desire not to conform.

 Self concept theory :  Another behaviour determinant is a person's self concept or self image. A person's self concept or self image is the way he sees himself. At the same time, it is the picture, which he thinks others have of him. Psychologists have distinguished between Between several self-concept or images :  We have a perceived self-concept, which is how one sees oneself. There is an ideal self concept, which is the model person one strives to be. It is an image of self to reach many persons aspire. There is a social self concept, which is how we think others perceive us and finally, there is an apparent self concept, which is how other people actually serious. The actual self concept is a kind of composite of all the self-concept. the actual self concept is defined as what one is seen to be objectively, but they Characterization of self-concept is that it is largely a subjective notion since all persons are always in the state of changing or becoming, there is no lasting or permanent actual self concept.

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