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Saturday, 22 September 2018

Types of Reference Groups



Let us now examine in detail the types of reference groups influencing the behaviour of consumers. Reference group can be classified in terms of a person's membership or degree of movement with the group and in terms or positive or negative influence they have in his values, attitude,and behaviour.

1) Contractual Group: A contractual group is a group in which a person holds membership or has face to face contact with other members, and of whose values,attitude and standard he or she approves. Thus a contractual group has a positive influence on an  individual's attitudes or behaviour. For instance,a student in the Institution of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu might be a member of a religious group that meet regularly every week.

2) Aspirational Group: This refers to a group in which a person does not hold membership and does not have face to face contact,but want to be a member. This type of group has a positive influence on the person's attitudes or behaviour. For instance, a person who is not a member of Rotary Club in Nigeria might be working towards the group.

3) Disclaimant Group: Sometimes an individual may join certain groups and yet dislike some behaviours of such groups. A disclaimant group is a group in which a person holds membership or has face to face contact but disapproves of the groups values,attitudes,behaviour. Thus the person tends to adopt attitudes and behaviours that are in opposition to the norms of the groups.

4) Avoidance Group: This is a group in which a person those not hold membership and does not have face to face contact and disapproves of the groups values, attitudes and behaviours. This means that a person tend to adopt attitudes and behaviour that are in opposition to those of the groups.