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Thursday, 4 October 2018

Functional Units of a Computer System



INPUT UNITS: A computer must receive both data and statements to function properly and able to solve problems.  The process of entering these days and program to a computer is system input. The means of feeding the these data and programs to a computer is accomplished by input United device. Computer input decive send data to computer and these data are translated into electrictronic impulses for transfer into the COUNTRY. Some typical inputs device are keyboard,  mouse, scanner, digital camera, floppy disk, flash drive.

THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT: The central processing unit CPU is the brain of a computer system. The CPU processes data transfered to it from one of the various input units/ devices. Then transfer either an intermediate or final result of the CPU to one or more output device. A central control section and work areas are required to perform calculations or manipulat data. The CPU is the computing center of the system. It consists of a control section, arithmetic and logic section, and storage section main memory sometimes called the primary memory. Each section within the CPU serves as specific function and has a particular relationship with the other sections within the CPU.

CONTROL SECTION:  The control section directs the flow of traffic operations and data. It also maintains order within the computer. The control section selects one program statement at a time from the program storage area, interprets the and sends the appropriate electronic impulses to the arithmetic and logic section does not perform actual processing instructions. The control section instructs the input decive on when to start and stop transferring data to input storage area. It also tells the out put device when to start and stop receiving data from the output storage area.

ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC SECTION: The arithmetic and logic section performs arithmetic operations such as addition,subtraction, multiplication, and division.  Through the internal logic capability, it tests various conditions encountered during processing and take action based on the results. Data flows between the arithmetic and logic section and the internal storage section during processing. Specifically data is transferred needed from the storage section to the arithmetic and logic section processed and returned to internal storage. At no time does processing take place in the storage section. Data may be transferred back and forth between these two sections several times before processing is completed. The result are then transferred from the internal storage to an output device.

INTERNAL STORAGE SECTION/BANK OF REGISTERS:  The internal storage section is sometimes called primary storage or main memory. The main memory section functions similar to our own human memory. The storage section four purposes three relat to retention holding of data during processing. Data is transferred from an input device to the input storage area where it remains until the computer is ready to process it. Secondly a working storage area scratch pad memory within the storage section holds both the data being processed and the intermediate results of the arithmetic and logic operations. Third, the storage section retains the processing results in the output storage area.  From there the processing results can be transferred to an output device. The storage section, the program storage area contains the program statements transferred from an input device to process the data. It should however, be noted that the four areas input, working storage, output and program storage, are not firmed in size or location but are determined by individual program requirements.