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Monday, 19 November 2018

Poliomyelitis





Poliomyelitis, also known as infantile paralysis, affects mainly children below the age of five.

Causative organism

    The causative agent is a picornavirus, an RNA virus.

Mode of transmission

Poliomyelitis is transmitted mainly

• through food and water contaminated with infected faeces ; and 

• by droplet infection during the coughing and sneezing of poliomyelitis patients or carriers.

Symptoms

    The disease begins in an acute manner. The child has a very high fever, suffers from headache , nausea, fits and stiffness of the limbs. In severe case, the poliomyelitis virus attacks the nerve fibres of the spinal cord using paralysis of the lower extremities and the muscles of the respiratory tract. If this happens, the patient requires an iron lung to aid him in breathing.

Control/prevention

Vaccine is the most effective means of control. Savin vaccine given orally or Salk vaccine injected into the body provides lasting immunity. Changes of total recovery are good if detected and treated early.