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Thursday, 22 November 2018

Refuse Disposal





Every household produces a certain amount of waste or refuse daily. If this refuse is just thrown outside the house, it will soon encourage the breeding of animal vectors like houseflies, mosquitoes, cockroaches and RAts. These vectors would spread many diseases, thereby affecting the health of the community. Refuse, therefore, must be collected, stored in covered bins by each household and disposed of properly at regular intervals.

    In many rural areas , each household is responsible for disposing its own refuse. This is done by burning, burying or composting . dru refuse such as paper and husks of good is usually burnt. Refuse which cannot be burnt such as glass and metal is usually buried in a matter, dry leaves and animal dung which will decomposed are placed in pits lined with stoned. The refuse is sprayed with sewage to start and prevent flies from breading. In time, this refuse rods rots to form compost which can be mixed with soil to improve it for cultivation m compost pits should not be sited near the water supply. Waste wager which does not contain faeces or urine is allowed to drain Tonto seepage pits, or be used to irrigate the land if it does not contain soap or detergents. In small villages, groups of villagers clean public places like the market and village square and dispose the refuse in a rotational basis.   

   In large villages, towns and cities, refuse disposal is the responsibility of the public health authorities, which comes under the ministry of health. Each household stores the refuse in coverer bind. The refuse is collected from these bins regularly by refuse lorries and disposed of by 

• burning in incinerators, 

• dumping, 

• sanitary land fill or controlled tipping, and 

• emptying into the sea. 

   In many countries, refuse is burned completely in incinerators at high temperatures. Before burning , components of the refuse such ad cans, bottles and plastics are separated out. These are pulverized and buried , or taken to a recycling plant.

   Incineration contributes to air pollution. Modern incinerators, however, are fitted with anti pollution devices that minimize air pollution. Proper incinerator, however , are very expensive to build.

   Dumping of refuse is an easy method of refuse disposal. However , refuse dumps.
• are unsightly

• produce unpleasant smells , and 

• are unsanitary as the dumps harbour vectors of diseases and encourage the multiplication of diseases causing pathogens.

In addition , a large area is needed to store or dump the refuse.

   Sanitary land fill or controlled tipping is an acceptable method of refuse disposal. In this method, refuse is buried in

• puts made by mining or other activities; and 

• low lying wasteland, swamps or marshes.

The refuse is first tipped onto the site. Thoroughly compacted with the help of tractors and immediately covered with s layer of earth. Each covered layer is placed on the top of it. Sanitary land fill is a way of reclaiming land. Such reclaimed land fill is a often converted into parks.

   Discharge of refuse into sea, although practiced in some places, is an unacceptable method of refuse disposal. It pollutes the sea ad well as the beaches.

   In many developed countries, refuse disposal is a big problem. One method used to solve this problem is to recycle wasted like plastic, metals and glass.

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