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Tuesday, 18 September 2018

Functions of Attitudes

Understanding the functions of attitude means understanding how they serve the individuals. Katz(1960) outlined four classifications of attitude functions.

(1) The Utilitarian Function; Attitudes guide consumers in achieving desired needs. For example,a consumer who considers safety and immediate relief the most important criteria in selecting an analgesic will be directed to brands that fulfill these needs also in their utilitarian role,attitude will direct consumers away from brands unlikely to fulfill their needs.

(2) The Value Expressive Function; Attitudes help consumers to express their self concept and value system. The self image of an individual purchasing a sports car,for example,may be of a hard driving ,domineering person who likes to gain the upper hand. Aggressiveness may manifest itself in purchasing a car that fit his image. In the same way,the individual who dresses conservatively like every one else where he or she works has accepted the value of conservatism and wealth as expression of success.

Advertisers also appeal to the value expressive nature of attitude by telling the consumers that use or purchase of their, brands will lead to self enhancement, achievement ,or independence. In this way,advertisers are appealing to those consumers who value self expressive traits.

(3) The Ego Defensive Function; Attitude protect the ego from anxieties and threats. Many product like mouthwashes,are produced to avoid anxiety producing situations. Most individuals,use mouthwashes to avoid bad breath rather than to cure it. Advertising capitalizes on the fears of social ostracism by demonstrating greater social acceptance through use of certain products. As a result consumers develop positive attitudes towards brands associated with social acceptance,confidence and social desirability.

(4) The Organization of Knowledge Function; Attitudes organise the mass of information consumers are exposed to daily and help set pu standards on which to judge the information. The consumer sort all the messages,ignoring the less relevant information. The organisation of knowledge function also reduce uncertainty and confusion. Advertising that provides information about new brands or new characteristics of existing product is value able for the information it provides.