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Tuesday, 18 September 2018

Other Application of Classical Conditioning Principles to Marketing Strategy

Three basic concepts have been derived from conditioned learning.
These are repetition,stimulus generalization ,and stimulus discrimination. Each of these concepts is important to an understanding of consumer behaviour.

Repetition: Just as dogs may learn to salivate at the sound of a bell after repeated trials,in the same way may learn a message they a marketer wants to impart through repeated exposure to the same advertisement. Some researchers believe that repetition works by increasing the strength of the and by slowing the process of forgetting, which is seen as the process of decay. However there is a limit to the amount of repetition that will aid retention. Research evidence shows that some over learning ,or repetition beyond what is necessary to learn,aids retention. But when exposure goes beyond certain point ,an individual can become satiated, and consequently attention and retention can decline.

Stimulus Generalization;Stimulus generalization is a concept derived from classical conditioning. The classical conditioning theorist have pointed out that learning depends not only on repetition, but also on the ability of individuals to generalize. Pavlov himself noted,for example that a dog could learn to salivate not only to the tone of a bell, but also to somewhat similar sound of jangling key. If consumers were not capable of stimulus generalization, that is, of making the same response to slightly different stimulus, but much learning would occur. It is because of stimulus generalization by consumers that companies turn out imitative "me too" products into the market immediately after the introduction of an innovative product(Miaoulis and D Amato,1978). This concept also explains why manufacturers of private brands try to make their packaging be like or resemble the national brand leaders.

Another marketing strategy is based on the principle of stimulus generalization is product line extension. Product line extension refers to the practise of adding related products to an already established brand. For example Clairol,which initially specialize in hair dyes,has extended its line to all kinds of hair care products from hair dryers to shampoos. For product line extension strategy to be effective,the company must remained with in the limits of the consumers ability to generalize.

The stimulus generalization principle has also enabled companies to practice the strategy of family branding. Family brand is the practise of making a whole line of company products under the same brand name. This strategy capitalizes on the consumer's ability to generalize favorable brand association from one product to  next. For example,because of the favorable image of Guinness beer,the company extended the name to malt drink,and called it Guinness malt.

Stimulus discrimination; Stimulus discrimination, is the opposite of stimulus generalization. Stimulus discrimination occurs when the consumer selects a specific stimulus and continues to select this stimulus,from among similar stimuli. The principle of stimulus discrimination by consumers is used by marketers to position their product. Positioning seeks to establish a unique image for a brand in the consumer's mind through stimulus discrimination.

Imitators wants consumers to generalize their experience, whereas market want to remain on top by convincing consumers to discriminate and thereby stick to their brands. It is quite difficult to upset or push down a brand leader once stimulus discrimination has taken place. This is because consumers may continue to insist on the brand. What marketers who enter late in the market should do is to capture a unique position in the consumer's mind by highlighting some special product feature or by offering a unique price ,distribution ,or promotional strategy.