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Saturday, 6 October 2018

Control of pest and parasite

The control aims at keeping away the pest and parasite away from their hosts and eradicating the vector and intermediate hosts.

   To achieve these aims, we have to use different methods of control. This method will depend on the type of pest or parasite and on the presence of vectors and intermediate hosts.

Generally, these methods include the destroying of the breeding places of the pest and vectors;

• Applying appropriate chemicals on the host farm animal to prevent infestation and to kill the ectoparasites already on it and 

• Spraying appropriate chemicals on the pests vectors and intermediate hosts to kill them.

   Besides these methods, it is Important to raise a healthy stock of farm animals which can resist infestation by pest and parasites. This can be done by 

• Providing the farm animals with a well balance Diet.
• Good sanitation, I.e keeping the farm and its surrounding Clean and 
• Breeding varieties that have immunity against certain pests or parasites.

Controls of ticks

Ticks and other ectoparasites such as lice and fleas are controlled by applying the appropriate Insecticide on the farm animal. This may be done by dipping the host animal in a tank containing the appropriate Insecticide solution. The insecticide can also be sprayed or dusted onto the host Animal. This kills the ticks that are on the farm animals. It also prevent further infestation of the farm animals.

   To completely eradicate the ticks, the surrounding where they hide such as the grounds , and the animal shelters or housing must be thoroughly fumigated with insecticide.

Control of trypanosomes

This involves clearing bushes which are the potential resting and breeding places of the tsetse fly;
• spraying insecticide on the resting places of the tsetse fly;
• Destroying animals that form reservoirs for trypanosomes;
• giving medication to farm animals before entry of trypanosomes into their bodies to help them fight the parasites;
• treating infected farm animals with medication immediately; and 
• rearing farm animals such as N'dama cattle which have a natural  immunity against trypanosomiasis  in tsetse fly areas.

Control of liver Flukes

Control methods are directed at the water snail, the intermediate host. The snails are killed by spraying water bodies in infected areas with chemicals like copper sulphate. Pools and swamp lands are drained to destroy the snail's living environment. Vegetation along sluggish streams, pond and lakes are cleared. Farm animal are also prevented from grazing near infested water bodies. Infected farm animals are treated by drenching them with carbon tetrachloride.