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Tuesday, 20 November 2018


Trypanosomes is also known ad sleeping sickness. This diseases us found mainly in tropical Africa

Causative organism

The causative agent is actively swimming protozoan, trypanosoma gambiesene.

Mode of transmission

The modern of transmission is through the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Humans, cattle and horses are the hosts of this protozoan. 


Clinical symptoms include fever,  headache and lethargy. The lymph glands are swollen at the neck. The symptoms persist at this stage for a few months before the trypanosomes move on to attack the brain. When this happens, the patient becomes emaciated and semi conscious, giving the disease, its name. Meningitis then sets in causing death. Trypanosomiasis is more widespread in East Africa. The disease is fatal if not treated within six month.

Control /prevention

Trypanosomiasis is controlled by eradicating tsetse flies.

Body ringworm or Tinea versicolor

Tinea versicolor is commonly known as eczema or ugwa.

Causative organisms

It is caused by a group of filamentous fungi known ad dermatophytes because they grow on skin, hair and nails.

Mode of transmission

Since it is a skin disease, infection is by direct contact with the affected part of the body.


When the spores of the fungus land on the skin, they germinate, sending out mycellia into the skin. This gives rise yo a small patch which gradually spreads on all sides into a larger, circular itching patch. The patches commonly appear on the face , neck chest and back.


 Good personal hygiene is the best prevention against a fungal attack. Physical contact with an infected person should be avoided.