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Monday, 3 December 2018

Artificial Vegetative Propagation

Farmers and horticulturist use vegetative reproductive methods to grow plants that are exactly like the parent. They do this by planting pieces of perennating organs like tubbers and rhizomes. each piece must have a bud which can develop into a new plant. They also use cuttings, marcotting, layering, and bud and stem grafting to artificially propagate plant with desirable properties.

     Cuttings are woody or green parts of stems which can grow roots and develop into new plants. The lower cut end of the stem is usually treated with rooting hormone to promote root growth. The cutting is then planted  in moist earth, in a shady place. Sweet potato, cassava, croton and cocoa are propagated by a stem cuttings.

     In layering, roots grow from the slit node of a branch that is bent to touch the ground and covered with soil. The branch is then cut from the parent tree and allowed to grow on its own. Layering is used to produce new plants of Bougainvillea, rose, cocoa and coffee.

    In marcotting, roots grow from the part of a branch at which a ring of tissue has been removed. This branch can then grow into a new plant. This method is used to propagate garden shrubs and fruit trees like mango and lemon.

     In budding and grafting, a scion ( a plant having some good or desired properties) is made to grow on a stock (a plant providing a well established root system). The scion and stock must be closely related varieties.

    In budding, a bud from the scion fuses with a branch of a stock and grows into a new plant. In grafting, a branch off the scion fuses with a branch of the stock and grows into a new plant.

    Budding and grafting are skilled techniques that are very important in agriculture. They are commonly used to propagate many fruit trees, especially citrus trees. Such treed bear fruits quickly and have all the properties of the parent.

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