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Tuesday, 11 December 2018

Biome Types of the World

Biome type - Characteristics and climate

• Tropical Rain Forests  -  (i) Dense forests with many types of trees, epiphytes and climbers.

(ii) Abundant rainfall and an average temperature of 27° C throughout the year.

• Temperature forests - (i) Forests mainly of broad leaved deciduous trees, I.e. trees that shed their leaves during the winter; forests are less dense than tropical forests, so that sunlight can penetrate into the forests enabling the growth of plants at many levels from the ground.

(ii) Cool temperate climate with light rainfall and snow.

• Temperature shrubland - (i) Consists of drought resistant shrubs, aromatic plants, and dwarf trees, often fire resistant such as maquis (macchia) chaparral, health, etc.

(ii) Temperature climate with low rainfall, where the summers are hot and dry, and the winters, mild and rainy.

• Savanna - (i) Tropical grasslands, often with scattered trees; soil is often infertile.

(ii) Moderately dry climate, with a warm dry season and a hot rainy season.

• Temperate Grassland - (i) Large stretches of perennial grasses growing on very fertile soil; supports herds of grazing mammals; includes the steppes, prairies, plains, pampas and veld.

(ii) Moderately dry climate with a cold winter and a hot summer.

• Desert - (i) Very sparse vegetation consisting of succulent perennials with deep root systems, and annuals which exist mainly as seeds that germinate, grow rapidly, flower and produce seeds during the brief periods when it rains.

(ii) Tropical temperate and arctic alpine regions with less than 250 mm of annual rainfall.

• Tundra - (i) Treeless marshy vegetation composed mainly of dwarf shrubs, grasses, sedges, lichen and moss; very few plant types.

(ii) Cold climate (arctic region) with long icy winters and very short (three months) summers with an average temperature of 10°C.

• Mountain vegetation - (i) Evergreen rain  forests occur in the slopes of mountains; these forests are less luxuriant than the tropical rain forests.

(ii) Afro alpine vegetation occurs at heights above 3000 m on mountains; vegetation consists mainly of heaths, grasses and sedges.
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